International

Etats-Unis d'Amérique : thirty years of philosophical and empirical research in philosophy for children: an overview

Maughn Gregory, responsible de l'IAPC mailto:gregorym@mail.montclair.edu

Aperçu bibliographique sur trente ans de recherches philosophique et empiriques en Philosophie pour Enfants

Introduction

The bibliography that follows is a selection from thousands of articles, monographs, books and curricular titles in Philosophy for Children that have appeared in English since the founding of the Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children (IAPC) in 1974 at Montclair State College (now University). The selection process has been equally fascinating and painful, given the quality and the diversity of the available materials. The first selection criterion - publication in English - was provided by the editor of this volume, Michel Tozzi.

The second is self-imposed : that the bibliography reflect the geographical, philosophical, and disciplinary diversity of the scholarship produced in this field over the last thirty years. Today there are numerous approaches to this work. The very name "Philosophy for Children" has been replaced in many parts of the world with phrases like "Philosophy with Children," "with Children and Adolescents," "Philosophy in Schools," and even "Philosophy for Everyone." Since, as yet, no theoretical or practical differences distinguish these programs from each other, my use of the original name, and its popular acronym "P4C," in the bibliography categories below is meant to encompass all of them.

The final criterion I have used has been importance relative to space restrictions. I have included works I judge to be foundational and innovative, acknowledging that my judgment is fallible and my knowledge of, and access to relevant publications, unavoidably limited.

I have organized the bibliography into sixteen categories, some of which correspond to canonical branches of Western philosophy and most of which have been used for many years in the P4C world to organize conferences, anthologies, and etc. The remaining categories occurred in the process of my surveying the thousands of titles within my access. Within each category I have organized the publications first by year, then alphabetically by source title and volume number, and finally alphabetically by author. As single works may be relevant to more than one category, there is overlap among the categories. Also, since this is merely a representative bibliography, each section includes only a fraction of the publications relevant to its category. For these reasons, scholars conducting literature reviews should take these sections as points of departure.

I. Introductory and Broad-spectrum Works

  • Matthew Lipman and Terrell Ward Bynam, guest eds.: Metaphilosophy Vol. 7, No. 1 (January 1976), special issue dedicated to Philosophy for Children.
  • Matthew Lipman, Ann Margaret Sharp & Frederick S. Oscanyan: Philosophy in the Classroom (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980).
  • Gareth Matthews: Dialogues with Children (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984).
  • Michael S. Pritchard: Philosophical Adventures with Children (Boston: University Press of America, 1985).
  • Matthew Lipman: Philosophy Goes to School (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988).
  • "Socrates for Six-Year-Olds," (1989) film documentary produced by the BBC for the series "The Transformers."
  • Ann Margaret Sharp and Ronald F. Reed, eds.: Studies in Philosophy for Children: Harry Stottlemeier's Discovery (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992).
  • Phil Cam: Thinking Together: Philosophical Inquiry for the Classroom (Sydney: Hale & Iremonger/PETA, 1995).

II. P4C, Dialogue and the Community of Inquiry

A. Theory of Dialogue and Community of Inquiry

  • Ann Margaret Sharp: "What is a Community of Inquiry?" Journal of Moral Education Vol.16, No. 1, (January 1987), 37-44.
  • David Kennedy: "The Five Communities," Analytic Teaching Vol. 15, No. 1 (November 1994), 3-16.
  • Maughn Gregory: "Constructivism, Standards, and the Classroom Community of Inquiry," Educational Theory Vol. 52, No. 4 (Fall 2002).
  • Karel Van der Leeuw: "Philosophical Dialogue and the Search for Truth," Thinking Vol. 17, No. 3 (2004), 17-23.

B. Pedagogy and Practice of Dialogue and Community of Inquiry

  • Mark Weinstein: "Leading a Philosophical Discussion," Analytic Teaching Vol. 7, No. 2 (May 1986).
  • Susan Gardner: "Inquiry is no Mere Conversation (or Discussion or Dialogue): Facilitation of Inquiry is Hard Work! Analytic Teaching Vol. 16, No. 2 (April 1996), 102-111.
  • Karin Murris: "The role of the facilitator in philosophical inquiry," Thinking Vol. 15, No. 2 (2000), 40-46.
  • David Kennedy: "The Role of a Facilitator in a Community of Philosophical Inquiry," Metaphilosophy Vol. 35, No. 5 (October 2004), 744-765.
  • Maughn Gregory: "A Framework for Facilitating Classroom Dialogue," Teaching Philosophy, Vol. 30, No. 1 (March 2007), pp. 59-84.

III. P4C, Critical Thinking, Cognitive Skills, and Informal / Logic

A. Theory of Critical Thinking, Cognitive Skills, and Informal / Logic

  • Mark Weinstein: "Critical Thinking: Expanding the Paradigm," Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines, Vol. XV, No. 1 (Fall 1995).
  • Laurance J. Splitter: "Concepts, Communities and the Tools of Good Thinking," Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines Vol. 19, No. 2 (Winter 2000), 11-26.
  • Gareth B. Matthews: "Creativity in the Philosophical Thinking of Children," Thinking Vol. 15, No. 1 (2000), 14-19.
  • Ji-Aeh Lee: "The Triadic Relationship in Thinking for Oneself," Thinking Vol. 16, No. 4 (2003), 13-21.
  • Matthew Lipman: Thinking in Education, 2nd Edition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

B. Pedagogy and Practice of Critical Thinking, Cognitive Skills, and Informal / Logic

  • Matthew Lipman: "The Cultivation of Reasoning through Philosophy," Educational Leadership (September 1984), 51-56.
  • Christina Slade: "Logic in the Classroom," Thinking Vol. 8, No. 2 (1989), 14-20.
  • Clive Lindop: "Critical Thinking and Philosophy for Children: The Educational Value of Philosophy," Thinking Vol. 9, No. 3 (1991), 32-35.
  • Nina S. Yulina: "Teaching People How to Reason: The Philosophical Strategy of Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 13, No. 4 (1998), 8-19.
  • Felicity Haynes and Bruce Haynes: "The development of a conceptual framework for critical thinking and problem solving K-12," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 8, No. 1 (March 2000).
  • Mark Weinstein: "Some Foundational Thoughts on Critical Thinking Practice," in Critical Thinking and Reasoning: Current Theories, Research and Practice (Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press, 2003).

IV. P4C, Ethics, Religion, Moral Education and Personal Development

A. P4C, Ethics, Morality and Religion

  • Michael S. Pritchard: "On Becoming A Moral Agent From Aristotle to Harry Stottlemeier," Thinking Vol. 9, No. 2 (1991), 16-24.
  • Ann Margaret Sharp: "The Ethics of Translation," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1993), 10-17.
  • Megan Laverty: "Putting Ethics at the Center," Thinking Vol. 11, Nos. 3-4 (1994), 73-76.
  • Matthew Lipman: "Caring as Thinking," Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines, Vol. XV, No. 1 (Autumn 1995), 1-13.
  • Dina Mendoca: "The religious dimension of Philosophy for Children," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 4, No. 2 (October 1996).
  • Justen Infinito-Allocco: "Philosophy and Shifting Morality," Thinking Vol. 13, No. 2 (1997), 48-49.

B. P4C and Ethical, Moral, Values, Religious and Character Education

  • Adrian DuPuis: "Philosophy, Religion and Religious Education," Thinking Vol. 1, Nos. 3-4 (1979), 60-63.
  • Matthew Lipman and Ann Margaret Sharp: "How are values to be taught?" Ethics in Education Vol. 9, No. 2 (November 1989), 2-3.
  • Philip Cam: "A philosophical approach to moral education," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 2, No. 2 (October 1994).
  • Gil Burgh and Mark Freakley: Engaging with Ethics: Ethical Inquiry for Teachers (Katoomba, N.S.W.: Social Science Press, 2000).
  • Tim Sprod: Philosophical Discussion in Moral Education: The Community of Ethical Inquiry (Routledge International Studies in the Philosophy of Education, Vol. 12) (New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2001).

C. P4C and Personal and Emotional Development

  • Jen Glaser: "Reflections on Personhood: Developing a Sense through Community of Inquiry," Thinking Vol. 10, No. 1 (1992), 19-22.
  • Michel Sasseville: "Self-Esteem, Logical Skills and Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 11, No. 2 (1994), 30-32.
  • Matthew Lipman: "Using Philosophy to Educate Emotions," Analytic Teaching: The Community of Inquiry Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2 (April 1995), 3-10.
  • Ann Gazzard: "What does Philosophy for Children have to do with Emotional Intelligence?" Thinking Vol. 15, No. 1 (2000), 39-45.

V. P4C, Political Philosophy and Civics Education

A. P4C and Political, Social and Cultural Philosophy

  • John P. Portelli and Ronald F. Reed, eds.: Children, Philosophy and Democracy (Calgary, Alberta: Detselig Enterprises, 1995).
  • Matthew Lipman: "The Contributions of Philosophy to Deliberative Democracy," in David Owens and Ioanna Kucuradi, eds.: Teaching Philosophy on the Eve of the Twenty-First Century (Ankara: International Federation of Philosophical Societies, 1998), 6-29.
  • Peter Davson-Galle: "Democracy, philosophy and schools," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 7, No. 1 (March 1999).
  • Maughn Gregory: "Conflict, Inquiry and Education for Peace," in Santi Nath Chattopadhyay, ed.: World Peace: Problems of Global Understanding and Prospects of Harmony (Calcutta, India: Naya Prokash, 2004).
  • Phillip Guin: "The Political and Social Ends of Philosophy," Thinking Vol. 17, No. 3 (2004), 41-46.

B. P4C and Political and Civics Education

  • Ann Margaret Sharp: "Community of Inquiry: Education for Democracy," Thinking Vol. 9, No. 2 (1991), 31-37.
  • Philip Guin: "Education for Global Citizenship," Analytic Teaching Vol. 17, No. 1 (November 1996), 59-62.
  • Matthew Lipman: "Education for Democracy and Freedom," Wesleyan Graduate Review, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Spring 1997), 32-38.
  • Nell Rainville: "Philosophy for Children in Native America: A Post-Colonial Critique," Analytic Teaching Vol. 21, No. 1 (November 2000), 65-77.
  • Gil Burgh, et al.: Ethics and the Community of Inquiry: Education for Deliberative Democracy, 2nd Edition (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Thomson Social Science Press, 2006).
  • Teresa De La Garza: "Education for Justice," Thinking Vol. 18, No. 2 (2006), 12-18.
  • Jen Glaser: "Educating for Citizenship and Social Justice," in Daniela Camhy, ed.: Philosophical Foundations of Innovative Learning (Germany: Academia Verlag, 2007), 16-25.

VI. P4C, Aesthetics and Aesthetics and Art Education

  • Chris de Haan: "Deweyan aesthetics in the philosophy classroom," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1995).
  • Christina Slade and Maryanne del Gigante: "Find the Poles in 'Blue Poles'," Analytic Teaching Vol. 17, No. 2 (April 1997), 115-122.
  • Ann Margaret Sharp: "The Aesthetic Dimension of the Community of Inquiry," Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines, Vol. 17, No. 1 (1997), 67-77.
  • Wendy Turgeon: "The mirror of aesthetic education: philosophy looks at art and art at philosophy," Thinking Vol. 15, No. 2 (2000), 21-31.
  • Sara Liptai: "What is the meaning of this cup and that dead shark? Philosophical inquiry with objects and works of art and craft," Childhood & Philosophy Vol. 1, No. 2 (July/December 2005), online at http://www.filoeduc.org/childphilo/n2/SaraLiptai.htm , accessed 5/15/07.

VII. P4C, Gender and Feminism

  • Ann Margaret Sharp: "Women, Children and the Evolution of Philosophy for Children" Analytic Teaching: The Community of Inquiry Journal Vol.10, No. 1, (November 1989), 46-51.
  • Marie-France Daniel: "Women, Philosophical Community of Inquiry and the Liberation of Self," Thinking Vol. 11, Nos. 3-4 (1994), 63-71.
  • Christina Slade: "Harryspeak and the Conversation of Girls," Thinking Vol. 11, Nos. 3-4 (1994), 29-32.
  • Catherine Young Silva: "On Women, Feminism and Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 11, Nos. 3-4 (1994), 90-91.
  • Nina S. Yulina: "Prospects for Feminism and Philosophy for Children in Russia," Thinking Vol. 11, Nos. 3-4 (1994), 43.
  • Terri Field: "Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 13, No. 1 (1997)17-22.
  • Wendy C. Turgeon: "Reviving Ophelia: A Role for Philosophy in Helping Young Women Achieve Selfhood," Thinking Vol. 13, No. 1 (1997), 2-4.
  • Louise Collins: "Philosophy for Children and Feminist Philosophy," Thinking Vol. 15, No. 4 (2000), 20-30.

VIII. P4C, Philosophy and Philosophers

A. P4C and Philosophy

  • Ekkehard Martens: "Philosophy for Children and Continental Philosophy," Thinking Vol. 9, No. 1 (1990), 2-7.
  • Walter O. Kohan: "The Origin, Nature and Aim of Philosophy in Relation to Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 12, No. 2 (1995), 95-30.
  • Ann Gazzard: "Philosophy for Children and the Discipline of Philosophy," Thinking Vol. 12, No. 4 (1996), 9-16.
  • I.A. Kodrat'ev: "Philosophy and Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 13, No. 4 (1998), 20-22.
  • David Kennedy: "Philosophy for Children and the Reconstruction of Philosophy," Metaphilosophy Vol. 30, No. 4 (Oct 1999), 338-359.

P4C and Philosophers

  • Barry Curtis: "Wittgenstein and Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 5, No. 4 (1985), 10-19.
  • Phil Guin: "Reflections on Karl Popper and Philosophy for Children," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 1, No. 2 (October 1993).
  • Antonio Cosentino: "Kant and the Pedagogy of Teaching Philosophy," Thinking Vol. 12, No. 1 (1994), 2-3.
  • Hannu Juuso: "Hegel's influence on P4C," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 10, No. 2 (October 2002).
  • Matthew Lipman: "Philosophy for Children's Debt to Dewey," Critical & Creative Thinking Vol. 12, No. 1 (May 2004), 1-8.
  • Jung Yeup Kim: "The Dao of Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 17, Nos. 1-2 (2004), 69-72.
  • Oscar Brenifier: "Nasruddin Hodja, a master of the negative way," http://www.filoeduc.org/childphilo/ Vol. 1, No. 3 (January/June 2006), online at http://www.filoeduc.org/childphilo/n3/OscarBrenifier.htm , accessed 5/15/07.

IX. P4C and Childhood, Children and Adolescents

A. P4C, Children and Childhood

  • Matthew Lipman: "Developing Philosophies of Childhood," Thinking Vol. 2, Nos. 3-4 (1981), 4-7.
  • Emile Durkheim: "Childhood," Thinking Vol. 3, Nos. 3-4 (1982), 6 -9.
  • David Kennedy: "The Hermeneutics of Childhood," Philosophy Today Vo. 36, No. 1 (Spring 1992), 44-58.
  • Gareth Matthews: The Philosophy of Childhood (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994).
  • Winifred W.H. Lamb: "Philosophy for Children and the 'Whole Child'," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 8, No. 1 (March 2000).
  • Steinar Boyum: "Philosophical Experience in Childhood," Thinking Vol. 17, No. 3 (2004), 4-12.
  • David Kennedy: The Well of Being: Childhood, Subjectivity, and Education (New York: SUNY Press, August 2006).

B. P4C, Preschool, Kindergarten and Early Childhood

  • Gareth Matthews: Philosophy and the Young Child (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1980).
  • Irwin Edman: "Intimations of Philosophy in Early Childhood," Thinking Vol. 7, No. 1 (1987), 13-18.
  • Catherine McCall: "Young Children Generate Philosophical Ideas," Thinking Vol. 8, No 2 (1989), 22-41.
  • David Kennedy: "Young Children and Ultimate Questions: Romancing at Day Care," Analytic Teaching Vol. 12, No. 1 (November 1991), 59-64.
  • Joyce I. Fields: "Young children as emergent philosophers," Early Child Development and Care Vol. 107, No. 1 (1995), 57-59.
  • Karin Murris: "Philosophy with Preliterate Children," Thinking Vol. 14, No. 4 (1999), 23-33.
  • Seon-hee Jo and Jin-Whan Park: "Applying P4C in Korean Preschool," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 9, No. 2 (October 2001).

C. P4C and Adolescents

  • Louis Katzner: "Philosophy and the Middle-School Student," Thinking Vol. 1, No. 2 (1979), 37-38.
  • Jacob Needleman: "Teaching Philosophy to Adolescents," Thinking Vol. 3, Nos. 3-4 (1982), 26-30.
  • David Benjamin: "Philosophy in High School: What Does it All Mean?" Thinking Vol. 8, No. 4 (1990), 43-44.

X. Philosophy in Schools

A. Philosophy in Schools: Teachers and Teacher Preparation

  • Elias Baumgarten: "The Ethical and Social Responsibilities of Philosophy Teachers," Thinking Vol. 5, No. 2 (1984), 13-18.
  • Sandy Yule: "On trusting teachers with philosophy," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 3, No. 1 (March 1995).
  • Laurance J. Splitter: "Training teachers to "teach" Philosophy for Children," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 14, No. 2 (December 2006).
  • Eugenio Echeverra: "Teacher Education in Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 18, No. 2 (2006), 19-23.

B. Philosophy in Schools: Reflections on Practice and Practical Considerations

  • Michael J. Whalley: "The Practice of Philosophy in the Elementary School Classroom," Thinking Vol. 5, No. 3 (1984), 40-42.
  • Martyn Maher: "Reflections on Philosophic Practice in the Classroom," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 1, No. 2 (October 1993).
  • Clinton Golding: "What is philosophy in schools?" Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 14, No. 1 (March 2006).

C. Philosophy in Schools: Transcripts and Analyses of Children's Discussions

  • Ronald L. Reed: "Fifth-Graders Discuss Evidence, Knowledge, and Truth," Thinking Vol. 2, No. 1 (1980), 68-71.
  • Jack Huntington: "Transcript Regarding Fairness from the Gomer Co. Jr. School, Gasport, England," Thinking Vol. 5, No. 2 (1984), 36-38.
  • Marie-France Daniel: "Thinking, mind, the existence of God...Transcript of a classroom dialogue with first and second graders in Montreal," Thinking Vol. 7, No. 3 (1988), 21-22.
  • Yip Meng Fai, Dennis Au Seh Hon and Quek Choon Lang: "Analysing my students' face-to-face philosophy classroom discussions: an exploratory study," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 14, No.2 (December 2006).

D. Philosophy in Schools: Reports and Evaluations

  • Ray Karras: "Final Evaluation of the Pilot Program in Philosophical Reasoning in Lexington Elementary School 1978-79," Thinking Vol. 1, Nos. 3-4 (1979), 26-32.
  • John Iono, Mark Weinstein, and John Martin: "A Review of District 24's Philosophy for Children Program," Thinking Vol. 5, No. 2 (1984), 28-35.
  • Ruth Silver: "A Good Day (for Philosophy) at Red Bank," Thinking Vol. 6, No. 2 (1985), 29.
  • David Nicol: "An Evaluation of the Lipman Project in an English Comprehensive School," Thinking Vol. 9, No. 3 (1991), 28-31.
  • Hreinn Palsson: "We Think More Than Before About Others and Their Opinions: An Evaluation Report from Iceland," Thinking Vol. 12, No. 4 (1996), 24-29.

XI. P4C and Education

A. P4C, Education and Educational Reform

  • Matthew Lipman: "Philosophical Practice and Educational Reform," Journal of Thought, Vol. 20, No. 4 (Winter 1985), pp. 20-36.
  • Lurance J. Splitter: "Educational Reform through Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 7, No. 2 (1987), 32-39.
  • Frederick J.E. Woodbridge: "Education and Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 8, No. 3 (1989), 2-9.
  • Phil Cam , et al.: Philosophy, Culture and Education (Seoul: UNESCO, 1999).
  • Hannu Juuso: "Ancient Paideia and Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 14, No. 4 (1999), 9-20.
  • Lynne Hinton: "Reinventing a School," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 11, No. 2 (October 2003).

B. P4C and Learning Theory

  • Ann Gazzard: "Philosophy for Children and the Piagetian Framework," Thinking Vol. 5, No. 1 (1983), 10-13.
  • Matthew Lipman: Natasha: Vygotskian Dialogues (New York: Teachers College Press, 1996).
  • Laurance Splitter: "Transforming how teachers teach and students learn," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 11, No. 2 (October 2003).
  • Tock Keng Lim: "Piaget, Vygotsky and the Philosophy for Children Program," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 12, No. 1 (May 2004).
  • Clinton Golding: "Philosophy for Children and Multiple Intelligences," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 12, No. 1 (May 2004).

C. P4C, Pedagogy and Teacher Education

  • Richard Morehouse: "What is generalizable about the pedagogy of Philosophy for Children?" Analytic Teaching Vol. 3, No. 1 (1983), 25-27.
  • Laurance J. Splitter and Ann M. Sharp: Teaching for Better Thinking (The Australian Council for Educational Research, Ltd., 1995).
  • Marie-France Daniel: "P4C in Preservice Teacher Education: Difficulties and Successes Encountered in Two Research Projects," Analytic Teaching Vol. 19, No. 1 (November 1998), 15-28.
  • Christine Gehrett: "The Difficulty of Walking the Talk in Teacher Education," Analytic Teaching Vol. 21, No. 1 (November 2000), 34-43.

D. Philosophy and the Disciplines

  • Mark Weinstein: "Extending Philosophy for Children into the Curriculum," Analytic Teaching (October 1988).
  • Sue Knight & Carol Collins: "The curriculum transformed: philosophy embedded in the curriculum areas," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 8, No.1 (March 2000).
  • Philip Cam: "Philosophy and the school curriculum: some general remarks," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 14, No.1 (May 2006).

E. P4C and Math Education

  • Sou-yung Chiu: "Philosophy for Children and Mathematical Thinking," Thinking Vol. 9, No. 4 (1991), 47-53.
  • Maria Teresa de la Garza, Christina Slade, and Marie-France Daniel: "Philosophy of Mathematics in the Classroom," Analytic Teaching Vol. 20, No. 2 (April 2000), 88-104.
  • Groves, S., Doig, B. & Splitter, L.: "Mathematics classrooms functioning as communities of inquiry: Possibilities and constraints for changing practice," in T. Nakahara and M. Koyama, eds.: Proceedings of the Twenty-fourth Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Vol. III. (Hiroshima, Japan: Hiroshima University Press, 2000), 1-8.

F. P4C and Science Education

  • Paul A. Wagner: "Philosophy, Children, and 'Doing Science'," Thinking Vol. 1, No. 1 (1979), 55-57.
  • Ann Gazzard: "Thinking Skills in Science and Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 7, No. 3 (1988), 32-40.
  • Mark Weinstein: "Critical Thinking and the Goals of Science Education," Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines Vol. 9, No. 1 (February 1992).
  • Tim Sprod: "Improving Scientific Reasoning through Philosophy for Children: an Empirical Study," Thinking Vol. 13, No. 2 (1997), 11-16.

G. P4C and other School Subjects

  • Tim Sprod: "Philosophy for Children and Literacy," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1993).
  • Clive Lindop: "Philosophy for Children and ESL," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 1995).
  • Roger Cresswell: "Demons, devils, dragons and flames: harnessing sporting interests in the philosophy classroom," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 4, No. 2 (1996).
  • Manuela Gomez and Irene de Puig: "Ecodialogo: Environmental Education and Philosophical Dialogue," Thinking Vol. 16, No. 4 (2003), 37-40.
  • John Roemischer: "Teaching Social Studies through Dialogue and Dialectic: Restoring the Practice of Philosophical Inquiry," Thinking Vol. 18, No. 2 (2006), 35-42.

H. P4C and Gifted Education

  • Matthew Lipman: "What is different about the education of the gifted?" Roeper Review, Vol. 4, No. 1, (September 1981), 19-20.
  • Glen Ebish: "Analytical Thinking with the Gifted and Others," Thinking Vol. 3, No. 2 (1981), 31.
  • Dolly Cinquino, "An Evaluation of a Philosophy Program with 5th and 6th Grade Academically Talented Students," Thinking Vol. 3, Nos. 3-4 (1982), 79-83.
  • Laurance J. Splitter: "Delving ever deeper: Gifted students and philosophy," Gifted Education International 22(2/3), 2007. 207-217.

I. P4C with Disabled and At-Risk Students

  • Charlann Simon: "Philosophy for Students with Learning Disabilities," Thinking Vol. 1, No. 1 (1979), 21-33.
  • Maura J. Geisser: "Philosophy: A Key to the Deaf Mind," Thinking Vol. 6, No. 2 (1985), 33-40.
  • Jana Mohr Lone: "Are We All Mystery Creatures? Talking Philosophy With Children Who Are At Risk," Thinking Vol. 13, No. 3 (1997), 27-31.
  • Maggie Bowen: "Critical Thinking for Pupils with Special Education Needs: Indulgence or Necessity?" Analytic Teaching Vol. 19, No. 2 (April 1999), 92-98.
  • Benjamin Lukey: "Rethinking Dialogue: Reflections on Philosophy for Children with Autistic Children," Thinking Vol. 17, Nos. 1-2 (2004), 24-29.
  • Jen Glaser: "The Need for Recognition: P4C as a Response to Simister's 'Briht girls Who Fail'," Gifted Education international Vol.22, Nos. 2/3 (2007), 218-229.

XII. P4C with College Students and other Adults

  • Matthew Lipman: Harry Prime (Montclair, New Jersey: IAPC, 1987).
  • Wendy Turgeon: "Pedagogy of the Unimpressed: Philosophy for Children and the Adult Learner," Thinking Vol. 9, No. 3 (1991), 40.
  • Sarah Redshaw: "Philosophical Inquiry: Pomoting Thinking in Tertiary Education," Analytic Teaching Vol. 17, No. 1 (November 1996), 29-33.
  • Janette Poulton: "Where did Einstein's Ideas Come From? Pushing for Depth with Undergraduate Non-Philosophers," Analytic Teaching Vol. 18, No. 1 (November 1997), 5-15.

XIII. P4C and Technology

  • Richard Anthone: "Philosophical Inquiry and the Internet," Thinking Vol. 13, No. 3 (1997), 37-45.
  • Jen Glaser: A regular review of websites and web-based projects promoting philosophical inquiry with children, in Analytic Teaching, beginning in Vol. 20, No.1. (November 1999).
  • Kory Swanson and Karen Hornsby: "The Community of Inquiry: A Survey of Traditional Classroom and Webcourse Application," Analytic Teaching Vol. 21, No. 2 (April 2001), 87-105.

XIV. P4C Reflections on Research, Empirical Studies and Research Reviews

A. Reflections on Research in P4C

  • Mark Weinstein: "The Philosophy of Philosophy for Children: An Agenda for Research," Analytic Teaching Vol. 9, No. 1 (November 1989).
  • Hreinn Palsson: "Interpretive Research and Philosophy for Children," Thinking Vol. 12, No. 1 (1994), 33-40.
  • Richard Morehouse: "Research in Philosophy for Children," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 3, No. 2 (October 1995).
  • Tock Keng Lim: "How to evaluate Philosophy for children," Critical and Creative Thinking Vol. 6, No. 1 (March 1998).

B. Research Reviews

  • Joyce I. Fields: "Empirical data research into the claims for using philosophy techniques with young children," Early Child Development and Care Vol. 107, No. 1 (1995), 115-128.
  • Felix Garcia-Moriyon, Irene Rebollo and Roberto Colom: "Evaluating Philosophy for Children: A Meta-Analysis," Thinking Vol. 17, No. 4 (2005), 14-22.
  • Reznitskaya, Alina; "Empirical Research in Philosophy for Children: Limitations and New Directions," Thinking Vol. 17, No. 4 (2005), 4-13.

XV. P4C Curricular Titles and Other Resources

A. Curricular Titles in P4C and Analyses of Same

  • Matthew Lipman: Suki (Montclair, New Jersey: IAPC, 1978); and with Ann Margaret Sharp: Writing: How and Why: Instructional Manual (1980).
  • Matthew Lipman and Ann Margaret Sharp: Pixie (Montclair, New Jersey: IAPC, 1981); and Looking for Meaning: Instructional Manual (1982).
  • Matthew Lipman: Kio & Gus (Montclair, New Jersey: IAPC, 1982); and Wondering at the World: Instructional Manual (1986).
  • Matthew Lipman: Lisa, 2nd Edition (Montclair, New Jersey: IAPC, 1983); and with Ann Margaret Sharp: Ethical Inquiry: Instructional Manual (1995).
  • Matthew Lipman: Harry Stottlemeier's Discovery, 2nd Ed. (Montclair, New Jersey: IAPC, 1985); and Philosophical Inquiry: Instructional Manual (1984).
  • Philip Cam, ed: Thinking Stories and Teacher Resource/Activity Books Vols. 1 (1993), 2 (1994) and 3 (1999) (Sydney: Hale & Iremonger).
  • Ann Margaret Sharp: The Doll Hospital and Making Sense of My World: Instructional Manual (Camberwell, Victoria: ACER 2000).
  • Matthew Lipman: Elfie, 2nd Edition and, with Ann Margaret Sharp: Getting Our Thoughts Together, 2nd Ed (Montclair, New Jersey: IAPC, 2006).
  • Catherine McCall: Laura and Paul, 3rd Edition (Trafford Publishing, 2007).

B. On Using Children's Literature and Other Materials for P4C

  • "Thinking in Stories" column in Thinking, on philosophical import of individual works of children's literature; authored by Gareth Matthews in Vols. 2:3-4 (1981) to 18:1 (2006), and by Peter Shea, Vols. 18: 2 (2006) to present.
  • Gareth B. Matthews: "Philosophy and Children's Literature," Thinking Vol. 4, Nos. 3-4 (1983), 15-19.
  • Tim Sprod: Books Into Ideas (Melbourne: Hawker Brownlow, 1993).
  • Robert Fisher: "Stories for Thinking," Analytic Teaching Vol. 18, No. 1 (November 1997), 16-27.

XVI. P4C History

  • Robert J. Mulvaney: "Philosophy for Children in its Historical Context," Thinking Vol. 6, No. 3 (1986), 2-8.
  • Mark Weinstein: "Philosophy in Pre-College: Observations on the Contemporary Scene," APA Newsletter on Teaching Philosophy Vol. 88, No. 2 (March 1989).
  • Matthew Lipman: "The Institute for the Advancement of Philosophy for Children: Looking backward and looking forward," Cogito, Summer 1989, 143-145.
  • Michel Sasseville: "Unesco Meeting, Paris, March 1998," http://www.practical-philosophy.org.uk/Volume1Articles/Unesco.htm , accessed 5/15/07.
  • Matthew Lipman: "What is Happening in P4C?" in David M. Steiner, ed.: The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, Vol. 3: Philosophy of Education (Bowling Green State University: Philosophy Documentation Center, 1999), 21-26.
  • Anonymous: "American Philosophical Association Recognizes Excellence in Philosophy for Children Program," Insight Online 12/10/2001, http://frontpage.montclair.edu/iapc/APAAward.htm , accessed 5/15/07.

Diotime, n°34 (07/2007)

Diotime - Etats-Unis d'Amérique : thirty years of philosophical and empirical research in philosophy for children: an overview